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Transnational Issues

Disputes - International

Iran protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed tributaries to the Helmand River in periods of drought and Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf. Iran and the UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which are occupied by Iran. Iran stands alone among littoral states in insisting upon a division of the Caspian Sea into five equal sectors.

Refugees & Internally Displaced People

In 2007, there are about 914,268 refugees from Afghanistanand 54,024 from Iraq.

Trafficking in People

Currently, Iran is a source, transit and destination country for women and girls trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude. According to foreign observers, women and girls are trafficked to Pakistan, Turkey, the Persian Gulf and Europe for sexual exploitation, while boys from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan are trafficked through Iran en route to Persian Gulf states where they are ultimately forced to work as camel jockeys, beggars or labourers. Afghan women and girls are trafficked to the country for forced marriages and sexual exploitation. Women and children are also trafficked internally for the purposes of forced marriage, sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude.

Illicit Drugs

Despite substantial interdiction efforts, Iran remains a key trans-shipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe. Iran has the highest percentage of the population in the world using opiates. Iran also lacks anti-money-laundering laws which makes it ideal for crime syndicates.




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